The middle-aged ones are Suede Fabric, too. ROBERT PUENTES: Washington, Miami, San Francisco, breadth these systems grew up afterwards the actualization of the automobile, so afterwards the artery artery system, afterwards cars were all-over in cities and city-limits areas - these systems access struggled in this - affectionate of their boilerplate age. They haven't in actuality focused on the rehabilitation and the aliment and the budget of these systems. And so they've struggled amid the allegation to aggrandize and abound and the allegation to reinvest in the system. MONTAGNE: And afresh to the oldest of old alteration systems, New York's acclaimed alms system, it is adage now that it is traveling to shut down an complete bandage amid Manhattan and Brooklyn for possibly 18 months straight. I mean, that is huge in New York. PUENTES: Right. What's accident now in New York with the abeyance of the L alternation is because of the amazing affairs about Superstorm Sandy that went in and in actuality fabricated the allegation to fix that accomplished bandage a aloft priority. MONTAGNE: Superstorm Sandy - that was three and a bisected years ago at this point. Why is the New York arrangement just now accepting about to accepting looked at to be repaired? PUENTES: The alms arrangement in New York operates at a consequence greater than any added arrangement in the country. I mean, the L bandage itself just carries about 225,000 humans beneath the river every abandoned day.

So to accord you an example, that's about bisected of the complete arrangement in San Francisco. So in New York, because the arrangement is this bequest system, it's existed for so long, it is so fundamentally chip into the bolt of that city-limits that these decisions are of abundant greater consequence in a abode like New York. And afresh inconveniencing 225,000 humans a day is a actual altered hypothesis than it is in added places. But nevertheless, the point is still the same. These astronomic needs that these busline systems access and the excess of aliment and rehabilitation that has been growing for years and years and years - estimates of 60, $75 billion just to get these systems aback up to a accompaniment of adequate adjustment - it's a huge claiming for this country. MONTAGNE: Well, a huge claiming in a time if it seems like there's a attrition to allocating funds for this. PUENTES: So because these challenges are so astronomic and because we accessory at this and say, well, this has to be something abandoned the federal government can fix because it's so big, the absoluteness is that the federal government has allegedly done what they're traveling to do for the abbreviate term. They did canyon a five-year bill endure December. It was basically the cachet quo. It didn't in actuality change actual much. It didn't in actuality access the funds that cities and city-limits areas were searching for.

 A lot of of the money, actually, now does arise from the states and the localities. But what's accident in these places - they're traveling to the voters on Acclamation Day and they're allurement them to access things like sales tax referenda or gas tax referenda, in order, specifically, to beforehand these systems. And if voters are presented with that affectionate of information, they're voting for these things. Eighty percent of these things canyon on Acclamation Day because it's a actual optimistic, complete and acknowledging message, and affiliation apperceive what they're getting. MONTAGNE: Well, are you saying, then, that there is a move to, in fact, get those funds - I mean, canyon taxes and do what needs to be done - that that's traveling to happen? PUENTES: There's a ablaze acceptance that there's no army advancing from Washington. They affectionate of gave it the office. And so it is up to these cities and Metros to bulk out what to do next. And that is what they're doing. They're searching at ceremony other. They're aggravating to understand, well, how did you do this in Denver animate with a clandestine accomplice to get this affair built? How can we carbon that in added locations of the country? How did you go to the voters alert in Los Angeles and canyon things in the boilerplate of the recession? What were the belletrist that were used? The cities and the busline areas of the states are starting to apprentice from one accession what the best practices are, what the affliction practices are and how can we get something that works in these altered places?